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Comparative parameters

I. Morpho-syntactic parameters

  • Syntactic complexity of caritive construction

а) biclausal

b) monoclausal

  • Morphosyntactic level of caritive expression

а) within a lexeme (derivational type)

b) within a word form

c) within a constituent

d) within a clause

  • Syntactic restrictions for the expression of an absentee

0) nominalized expressions and finite verb forms

а) only nominals (nominalized expressions)

b) only nouns

            - only a subtype of nouns (e.g. concrete)

  • Morphological restrictions for the expression of an absentee

а) (im)possible to express relevant word classification categories of a language (such as gender, class etc.)

b) (im)possible to express relevant inflectional categories of a language (such as number, possessionm case etc.)

c) expression of the relevant categories is possible but limited

  • Boundness level of the caritive expression (marker)

а) affix

            - phrase affix

b) clitic

c) autonomous word form

d) syntactic construction

  • Possible syntactic functions of a caritive phrase

0) argument (independent use)

            - subject

            - direct object

            - oblique object

            - peripheral argument

а) attribute

b) copredicate (secondary predicate)

            - depictive

            - resultative

c) adjunct

            - sentential

            - predicate

            - (proper)-verbal

d) predicate (/a part of predicate)

  • Morpho-syntactic peculiarity of the caritive construction as compared to other caritive constructions of the language

а) form and functions are similar

b) form is similar, functions are different

c) form is different, functions are similar

d) form and functions are different

II. Semantic parameters

  • Is the expression caritive special or polysemantic?

а) special

d) polysemantic

  • Interaction with polarity

а) caritive expression contains a negation marker

b) caritive expression does not contain negation

             - the caritive constrctusion combines / does not combine with negation

2.1. Semantic restrictions for an absentee

  • Animacy

а) only animate

b) only inanimate

c) both are possible

  • Concreteness

а) concrete

            syntactic definiteness/concreteness markers are (not) allowed

b) non-concrete

c) both are possible

  • Pronominal expression of an absentee

а) possible

b) impossible                                   

  • Semantic role of an absentee

а) similar to the anchor's role

b) different from the anchor's role

c) both parameters are possible

  • Type of the semantic role of an absentee

а) companion

b) instrument

c) possessum (permanent)

d) possessum (temporal)

e) kinship term

f) body part

g) part of the whole

h) means of transport

i) contiguous entity

j) anchor's characteristic

k) content

l) reason/condition

m) adverbial circumstance

  • Determination of the semantic role

а) defined by the caritive construction

b) defined through the context


2.2. Semantic restrictions for an anchor

а) yes

b) no

2.3. Semantic restrictions on the kind of a main predicate in the caritive construction

а) yes

b) no

2.4. Semantic restrictions on the type of situation expressed by the caritive construction

  • Dynamic characteristic of the situation

а) may refer only to a permanent situation

b) may refer to a temporal situation

III. Communicative features of the caritive construction

  • Topic-focus status of a caritive phrase

а) a caritive phrase may be in scope of topic

b) a caritive phrase may be in scope of focus

      may (not) be in narrow focus

  • Assertive status of a caritive phrase

а) a caritive phrase may be in assertion

b) a caritive phrase may be in presupposition

  • Contrastive focus of a caritive phrase

а) possible

b) impossible